Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

NATURE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING POLICIES

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NATURE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING POLICIES
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2020
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Nature of Business and Accounting Policies NATURE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING POLICIES
The Business

Headquartered in Alpharetta, Georgia, Priority Technology Holdings, Inc. and subsidiaries (together, the "Company") began operations in 2005 with a mission to build a merchant inspired payments platform that would advance the goals of its customers and partners. Today, the Company is a leading provider of merchant acquiring and commercial payment solutions, offering unique product capabilities to small and medium size businesses ("SMBs") and enterprises and distribution partners in the United States. The Company operates from a purpose-built business platform that includes tailored customer service offerings and bespoke technology development, allowing the Company to provide end-to-end solutions for payment and payment-adjacent needs.

The Company provides:

Consumer payments processing solutions for business-to-consumer ("B2C") transactions through independent sales organizations ("ISOs"), financial institutions, independent software vendors ("ISVs"), and other referral partners. Our proprietary MX platform for B2C payments provides merchants a fully customizable suite of business management solutions.
Commercial payments solutions such as automated vendor payments and professionally curated managed services to industry leading financial institutions and networks. Our proprietary business-to-business ("B2B") Commercial Payment Exchange (CPX) platform was developed to be a best-in-class solution for buyer/supplier payment enablement.
Institutional services (also known as Managed Services) solutions that provide audience-specific programs for institutional partners and other third parties looking to leverage the Company's professionally trained and managed call center teams for customer onboarding, assistance, and support, including marketing and direct-sales resources.
Integrated partners solutions for ISVs and other third-parties that allow them to leverage the Company's core payments engine via robust application program interfaces ("APIs") resources and high-utility embeddable code.
Consulting and development solutions focused on the increasing demand for integrated payments solutions for transitioning to the digital economy.

The Company provides its services through three reportable segments: (1) Consumer Payments, (2) Commercial Payments, and (3) Integrated Partners. For additional information about our reportable segments, see Note 18, Segment Information.

To provide many of its services, the Company enters into agreements with payment processors which in turn have agreements with multiple card associations. These card associations comprise an alliance aligned with insured financial institutions ("member banks") that work in conjunction with various local, state, territory, and federal government agencies to make the rules and guidelines regarding the use and acceptance of credit and debit cards. Card association rules require that vendors and processors be sponsored by a member bank and register with the card associations. The Company has multiple sponsorship bank agreements and is itself a registered ISO with Visa®. The Company is also a registered member service provider with MasterCard®. The Company's sponsorship agreements allow the capture and processing of electronic data in a format to allow such data to flow through networks for clearing and fund settlement of merchant transactions.

Corporate History and Recapitalization

MI Acquisitions, Inc. ("MI Acquisitions") was incorporated under the laws of the state of Delaware as a special purpose acquisition company ("SPAC") whose objective was to acquire, through a merger, share exchange, asset acquisition, stock purchase, recapitalization, reorganization or other similar business combination, one or more businesses or entities. MI Acquisitions completed an initial public offering ("IPO") in September 2016, and MI Acquisitions' common stock began trading on The Nasdaq Capital Market with the symbol MACQ. In addition, MI Acquisitions completed a private placement to
certain initial stockholders of MI Acquisitions. MI Acquisitions received gross proceeds of approximately $54.0 million from the IPO and private placement.

On July 25, 2018, MI Acquisitions acquired all of the outstanding member equity interests of Priority Holdings, LLC ("Priority") in exchange for the issuance of MI Acquisitions' common stock (the "Business Combination") from a private placement. As a result, Priority, which was previously a privately-owned company, became a wholly-owned subsidiary of MI Acquisitions. Simultaneously with the Business Combination, MI Acquisitions changed its name to Priority Technology Holdings, Inc. and its common stock began trading on The Nasdaq Global Market with the symbol PRTH.

As a SPAC, MI Acquisitions had substantially no business operations prior to July 25, 2018. For financial accounting and reporting purposes under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States ("U.S. GAAP"), the acquisition was accounted for as a "reverse merger," with no recognition of goodwill or other intangible assets. Under this method of accounting, MI Acquisitions was treated as the acquired entity whereby Priority was deemed to have issued common stock for the net assets and equity of MI Acquisitions consisting mainly of cash of $49.4 million, accompanied by a simultaneous equity recapitalization (the "Recapitalization") of Priority. The net assets of MI Acquisitions are stated at historical cost and, accordingly, the equity and net assets of the Company have not been adjusted to fair value. As of July 25, 2018, the consolidated financial statements of the Company include the combined operations, cash flows, and financial positions of both MI Acquisitions and Priority. Prior to July 25, 2018, the results of operations, cash flows, and financial position are those of Priority. The units and corresponding capital amounts and earnings per unit of Priority prior to the Recapitalization have been retroactively revised as shares reflecting the exchange ratio established in the Recapitalization.

The Company's President, Chief Executive Officer and Chairman controls a majority of the voting power of the Company's outstanding common stock. As a result, the Company is a "controlled company" within the meaning of the corporate governance standards of the Nasdaq Stock Market, LLC ("Nasdaq").

Emerging Growth Company

The Company is an "emerging growth company" (EGC), as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 ("JOBS Act"). The Company may remain an EGC until December 31, 2021. However, if the Company's non-convertible debt issued within a rolling three-year period or if its revenue for any year exceeds $1.07 billion, the Company would cease to be an EGC immediately, or the market value of its common stock that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700.0 million on the last day of the second quarter of any given year, the Company would cease to be an EGC as of the beginning of the following year. As an EGC, the Company is not required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Additionally, the Company as an EGC may continue to elect to delay the adoption of any new or revised accounting standards that have different effective dates for public and private companies until those standards apply to private companies. As such, the Company's financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with public company effective dates.

Basis of Presentation and Consolidation

The accompanying consolidated financial statements include those of the Company and its controlled subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated upon consolidation. Investments in unconsolidated affiliated companies are accounted for under the equity method and are included in "Other non-current assets" in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. The Company generally utilizes the equity method of accounting when it has an ownership interest of between 20% and 50% in an entity, provided the Company is able to exercise significant influence over the investee's operations.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reported period. Actual results could materially differ from those estimates.
Components of Revenues and Expenses

Revenues

See Note 3, Revenue, for information about our revenue.


Costs of Services

Costs of services primarily consist of residual payments to ISOs and other direct costs of providing payment services. The residual payments represent commissions paid to ISOs and are generally based upon a percentage of the net revenues generated from merchant transactions. Other costs of services consist of third-party costs related to the Company's commercial payment services, ACH processing services, salaries that are reimbursed under cost-plus business process outsourcing services, and the cost of equipment (point of sale terminals).
 
Selling, General and Administrative
 
Selling, general and administrative expenses include mainly professional services, advertising, rent, office supplies, software licenses, utilities, state and local franchise and sales taxes, litigation settlements, executive travel, insurance, and expenses related to the Business Combination.

Interest Expense
 
Interest expense consists of interest on outstanding debt and amortization of deferred financing costs and original issue discounts.

Other, net
 
Other, net is composed of interest income, changes in fair value of warrant liabilities, and equity in losses and impairment of unconsolidated entities. Interest income consists mainly of interest received pursuant to notes receivable from independent sales agents and another entity (see Note 6, Notes Receivable). Equity in loss and impairment of unconsolidated entities consists of the Company's share of the income or loss of its equity method investment as well as any impairment charges related to such investments. At December 31, 2020, the Company no longer has any investments that are accounted for under the equity method. Changes in fair value of warrant liability relates to a warrant that was fully redeemed in 2018.


Debt Extinguishment and Modification Expenses

Debt extinguishment expenses represents the write-offs of unamortized deferred financing costs and original issue discount relating to the extinguishment, including partial extinguishment, of debt. Debt modification expenses represents amounts paid to third parties to modify existing debt agreements when those amounts are not eligible for capitalization.


Earnings Attributable to Redeemable and Redeemed Non-Controlling Interests

Represents the earnings and gains that are attributable to the non-controlling equity interests of certain of the Company's consolidated subsidiaries based on the operating agreements of the subsidiaries. See the "Non-Controlling" section under the following header for "Significant Accounting Policies."


Net Income (Loss) Attributable to Stockholders of Priority Technology Holdings, Inc.
Represents the net income or loss attributable to the stockholders of Priority Technology Holdings, Inc. after subtracting earnings, gains, or losses of consolidated subsidiaries that are attributable to the non-controlling equity interests of the subsidiaries.


Comprehensive Income (Loss)

Comprehensive income (loss) represents the sum of net income (loss) and other amounts that are not included in the consolidated statement of operations as the amounts have not been realized. For the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, there were no differences between the Company's net income (loss) and comprehensive income (loss). Therefore, no separate Statements of Other Comprehensive Income (Loss) are included in the financial statements for the reporting periods.
 

Significant Accounting Policies

Revenue Recognition

The Company recognizes revenue when it satisfies a performance obligation by transferring a service or good to the customer in an amount to which the Company expects to be entitled (i.e., transaction price) allocated to the distinct services or goods.

The Company uses the 5-step model in ASC 606 to determine when and how much revenue to recognize:

Step 1 - Identify the contract with the customer

Step 2 - Identify the performance obligation

Step 3 - Determine the transaction price

Step 4 - Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligation

Step 5 - Recognize revenue when (or as) the Company satisfies the performance obligation


Instead of evaluating each contract with a customer on an individual basis, the Company elects the permitted practical expedient that allows it to use the portfolio approach for many of its contracts since this approach’s impact on the financial statements, when applied to a group of contracts (or performance obligations) with similar characteristics, is not materially different from the impact of applying the revenue standard on an individual contract basis. Under the portfolio practical expedient, collectability is still assessed at the individual contract level when determining if a contract exists.

Deferred revenues are not material for any reporting period.

The Company's reportable segments are organized by services the Company provides through distinct business units. Set forth below is a description of the Company's revenue recognition polices by segment.

Consumer Payments - Revenue in this segment represents merchant card fee revenues, which involves promises to the customer for services related to the electronic authorization, acceptance, processing, and settlement of credit, debit and electronic benefit payment transactions through the payment networks. Merchants, who are the Company’s customers, are charged rates which are based on various factors, including the type of bank card, card brand, merchant charge volume, the merchant's industry and the merchant's risk profile. Typically, revenues generated from these transactions are based on a variable percentage of the dollar amount of each transaction, and in some instances, additional fees are charged for each transaction. The Company's merchant contracts involve three parties: the Company, the merchant and the sponsoring bank. The Company's sponsoring banks collect the gross merchant discount from the card holder’s issuing bank, pay the interchange fees and assessments to the payment networks and credit card associations, retain their fees, and pay to the Company the remaining amount which represents the Company's revenue. The Company recognizes its revenue net of the amounts retained by these third parties. The
Company incurs internal costs and costs of other third parties related to processing services. Merchant customers may also be charged miscellaneous fees, including statement fees, annual fees, and monthly minimum fees, fees for handling chargebacks, gateway fees and fees for other miscellaneous services.

Commercial Payments - This segment provides business-to-business ("B2B") automated payment services for customers, including virtual payments, purchase cards, electronic funds transfers, ACH payments, and check payments. Revenues are generally earned on a per-transaction basis and are recognized by the Company net of certain third-party costs for interchange fees, assessments to the payment networks, credit card associations, and sponsor bank fees. In this segment, a portion of the revenue is rebated to certain customers, and these rebates are reported as a reduction of revenue. Additionally, this segment provides outsourced business process services by providing a sales force to certain enterprise customers. Such business process services are provided on a cost-plus fee arrangement and revenue is recognized to the extent of billable rates times hours worked and other reimbursable costs incurred. For most performance obligations associated with outsourced services that are satisfied over time, the Company applies the permitted practical expedient known as the “invoice practical expedient” that allows the Company to recognize revenue in the amount of consideration to which the Company has the right to invoice when that amount corresponds directly to the value transferred to the customer.

Integrated Partners - The Integrated Partners segment earns revenue by providing services for payment-adjacent technologies that facilitate the acceptance of electronic payments from customers who conduct business in the rental real estate, rental storage, medical, and hospitality industries. A substantial portion of this segment’s revenues are earned as an agent of a third party, and therefore this earned revenue is reported as a net amount within revenue.

Cash and Restricted Cash

Cash includes cash held at financial institutions that is owned by the Company. Restricted cash is held by the Company in financial institutions for the purpose of in-process customer settlements or reserves held per contact terms.

Accounts Receivable

Accounts receivable are stated net of allowance for doubtful accounts and are amounts primarily due from the Company's sponsor banks for revenues earned, net of related interchange and processing fees, and do not bear interest. Other types of accounts receivable are from agents, merchants and other customers. Amounts due from sponsor banks are typically paid within 30 days following the end of each month.

Allowance for Doubtful Accounts Receivable and Notes Receivable
 
The Company records an allowance for doubtful accounts and/or notes receivable when it is probable that the account receivable balance or the note receivable balance will not be collected, based upon loss trends and an analysis of individual accounts. Accounts receivable and notes receivable are written off when deemed uncollectible. Recoveries of accounts receivable and notes receivable, if any, previously written off are recognized when received. The allowance for doubtful accounts was $0.6 million and $0.8 million at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The allowance for doubtful notes receivable was $0.5 million and zero at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

Customer Deposits and Advance Payments

The Company may receive cash payments from certain customers and vendors that require future performance obligations by the Company. Amounts associated with obligations expected to be satisfied within one year are reported in Customer deposits and advance payments on the Company's consolidated balance sheets and amounts associated with obligations expected to be satisfied after one year are reported as a component of Other non-current liabilities on the Company's consolidated balance sheets. These payments are subsequently recognized in the Company's consolidated statements of operations when the Company satisfies the performance obligations required to retain and earn these deposits and advance payments.

A vendor may make an upfront payment to the Company to offset costs that the Company incurs to integrate the vendor into the Company’s operations. These upfront payments are deferred by the Company and are subsequently amortized against expense
in its statement of operations as the related costs are incurred by the Company in accordance with the agreement with the vendor.
Property and Equipment, Including Leases

Property and equipment are stated at cost, except for property and equipment acquired in a merger or business combination, which is recorded at fair value at the time of the transaction. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets.
 
The Company has multiple operating leases related to office space. Operating leases do not involve transfer of risks and rewards of ownership of the leased asset to the lessee, therefore the Company expenses the costs of its operating leases. The Company may make various alterations (leasehold improvements) to the office space and capitalize these costs as part of property and equipment. Leasehold improvements are generally amortized on a straight-line basis over the useful life of the improvement or the term of the lease, whichever is shorter.
 
Expenditures for repairs and maintenance which do not extend the useful life of the respective assets are charged to expense as incurred. Expenditures that increase the value or productive capacity of assets are capitalized. At the time of retirements, sales, or other dispositions of property and equipment, the original cost and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the respective accounts, and the gains or losses are presented as a component of income or loss from operations.

Costs Incurred to Develop Software for Internal Use
 
Costs incurred to develop computer software for internal use are capitalized once: (1) the preliminary project stage is completed, (2) management authorizes and commits to funding a specific software project, and (3) it is probable that the project will be completed and the software will be used to perform the function intended. Costs incurred prior to meeting the qualifications are expensed as incurred. Capitalization of costs ceases when the project is substantially complete and ready for its intended use. Post-implementation costs related to the internal use computer software, are expensed as incurred. Internal use software development costs are amortized using the straight-line method over its estimated useful life which generally ranges from three to five years. Software development costs may become impaired in situations where development efforts are abandoned due to the viability of the planned project becoming doubtful or due to technological obsolescence of the planned software product. For the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, there was no impairment associated with internal use software. For the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, the Company capitalized software development costs of $7.1 million, $8.2 million, and $6.7 million, respectively. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, capitalized software development costs, net of accumulated amortization, totaled $16.4 million and $14.9 million, respectively, and is included in property, equipment, and software, net on the consolidated balance sheets. Amortization expense for capitalized software development costs for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018 was $5.3 million, $4.1 million, and $2.6 million, respectively, and are included in depreciation and amortization in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.

Settlement Assets and Obligations

Settlement processing assets and obligations recognized on the Company's consolidated balance sheet represent intermediary balances arising in the Company's settlement process for merchants and other customers. See Note 5, Settlement Assets and Obligations.

Debt Issuance and Modification Costs

Eligible debt issuance costs associated with the Company's credit facilities are deferred and amortized to interest expense over the term of the related debt using the effective interest method. Debt issuance costs associated with Company's term debt are presented on the Company's consolidated balance sheets as a direct reduction in the carrying value of the associated debt liability.

Business Combinations

The Company uses the acquisition method of accounting for business combinations which requires assets acquired and liabilities assumed to be recognized at their fair values on the acquisition date. Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase
price over the fair value of the net assets acquired. The fair values of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed are determined based upon the valuation of the acquired business and involves making significant estimates and assumptions based on facts and circumstances that existed as of the acquisition date. The Company uses a measurement period following the acquisition date to gather information that existed as of the acquisition date that is needed to determine the fair value of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed. The measurement period ends once all information is obtained, but no later than one year from the acquisition date.

Non-Controlling Interests

The Company issued non-voting profit-sharing interests in three of its subsidiaries that were formed in 2018 or 2019 to acquire the operating assets of certain businesses (see Note 4, Asset Acquisitions, Asset Contributions, and Business Combinations). The Company is the majority owner of these subsidiaries and therefore the profit-sharing interests are deemed to be non-controlling interests ("NCI").

To estimate the initial fair value of a profit-sharing interest, the Company utilized future cash flow scenarios with focus on those cash flow scenarios that could result in future distributions to the NCIs. Profits or losses are attributed to an NCI based on the hypothetical-liquidation-at-book-value method that utilizes the terms of the profit-sharing agreement between the Company and the NCIs.

As the majority owner, the Company has call rights on the profit-sharing interests issued to the NCIs. These call rights can be executed only under certain circumstances and execution is always voluntary at the Company's discretion. The call rights do not meet the definition of a free-standing financial instrument or derivative, thus no separate accounting is required for these call rights.

Based on the LLC agreements for these three subsidiaries, in certain instances the NCIs are entitled to certain earnings of the respective subsidiary. Prior to 2020, no earnings were attributable to any NCIs. All material earnings attributable to the NCIs for the year ended December 31, 2020 were simultaneously distributed to the NCIs.

As disclosed in Note 2, Disposal of Business, the NCIs of one of these subsidiaries, Priority Real Estate Technology, LLC, were fully redeemed during the year ended December 31, 2020. At December 31, 2020, the NCIs of one of the other subsidiaries, Priority PayRight Health Solutions, LLC, have also been fully redeemed and only one of the subsidiaries, Priority Hospitality Technology, LLC, has NCIs at December 31, 2020. See Note 4, Asset Acquisitions, Asset Contributions, and Business Combinations.

Goodwill

The Company tests goodwill for impairment for its reporting units on an annual basis, or when events occur or circumstances indicate the fair value of a reporting unit is below its carrying value. If the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value, an impairment loss is recorded to the extent that implied fair value of the goodwill within the reporting unit is less than its carrying value. See Note 7, Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets.

Other Intangible Assets

Other Intangible assets are initially recorded at cost upon acquisition by the Company. The carrying value of an intangible asset acquired in an asset acquisition may be subsequently increased for contingent consideration when due to the seller and such amounts can be estimated. The portion of any unpaid purchase price that is contingent on future activities is not initially recorded by the Company on the date of acquisition. Rather, the Company recognizes contingent consideration when it becomes probable and estimable. All of the Company's intangible assets, except Goodwill, have finite lives and are subject to amortization. Intangible assets consist of acquired merchant portfolios, customer relationships, ISO relationships, residual buyouts, trade names, technology, and non-compete agreements.
 
    Merchant portfolios

Merchant portfolios consist of the acquired rights to a portfolio of merchants such as those acquired from Direct Connect Merchant Services, LLC, and YapStone, Inc. The Company amortizes the cost of its acquired merchant portfolios over their estimated useful lives, which generally range from five years to six years using a straight-line amortization method.

    Customer Relationships
 
Customer relationships represent the cost of the acquired customer relationship, which typically consists of a portfolio of merchants or contracted business relationships. The Company amortizes the cost of its acquired customer relationships over their estimated useful lives, which generally range from 10 years to 15 years, using either a straight-line or an accelerated amortization method that most accurately reflects the pattern in which the economic benefits of the respective asset is consumed.

    ISO Relationships

ISO relationships represent the cost of acquired relationships with ISOs. The Company amortizes the cost of its acquired ISO relationships over their estimated useful lives, which generally range from 11 years to 25 years, using an accelerated amortization method that most accurately reflects the pattern in which the economic benefits of the respective asset is consumed.
    
    Residual Buyouts

Most of the Company's merchant customers in its Consumer Payments reportable segment are associated with independent ISOs, and these ISOs typically have a right to receive commissions from the Company based on the revenue earned by the associated merchants. The Company may occasionally decide to pay an ISO an agreed-upon amount in exchange for the ISO's surrender of its right to receive future commissions from the Company. The amount that the Company pays for these residual buyouts is capitalized and subsequently amortized over the expected life of the underlying merchant relationships. These amortization periods generally range between 1 year and 9 years and the Company uses either a straight-line or an accelerated amortization method that most accurately reflects the pattern in which the economic benefits of the respective asset is consumed.

    Technology

Technology intangible assets represent acquired technology, such as proprietary software and website domains. The Company amortizes the cost of acquired technology over their estimated useful lives, which generally range between 6 years and 7 years, using a straight-line amortization method that most accurately reflects the pattern in which the economic benefits of the respective asset is consumed.

     Trade Names and Non-Compete Agreements
 
These intangible assets are amortized over their estimated useful lives, which generally ranging between 5 years and 12 years, using a straight-line amortization method. All non-compete agreements were fully amortized at December 31, 2020 and 2019.


Impairment of Long-lived Assets

The Company reviews its long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. For long-lived assets, except goodwill, an impairment loss is indicated when the undiscounted future cash flows estimated to be generated by the asset group are not sufficient to recover the unamortized balance of the asset group. If indicated, the loss is measured as the excess of carrying value over the asset groups' fair value, as determined based on discounted future cash flows. The Company concluded there were no indications of impairment for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018. For the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company recognized impairment charges of $1.8 million for a residual buyout intangible asset. See Note 7, Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets.
Accrued Residual Commissions

Accrued residual commissions consist of amounts due to independent sales organizations ("ISOs") and independent sales agents based on a percentage of the net revenues generated from the Company's merchant customers. Percentages vary based on the program type and transaction volume of each merchant. Residual commission expenses were $240.2 million, $213.8 million, and $230.2 million, respectively, for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, and are included in costs of services in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.

ISO Deposit and Loss Reserve

ISOs may partner with the Company in an executive partner program in which ISOs are given negotiated pricing in exchange for bearing risk of loss. Through the arrangement, the Company accepts deposits on behalf of the ISO and a reserve account is established by the Company. All amounts maintained by the Company are included in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets as other liabilities, which are directly offset by restricted cash accounts owned by the Company.

Share-Based Compensation

The Company recognizes the cost resulting from all share-based payment transactions in the financial statements at grant date fair value. Share-based compensation expense is recognized over the requisite service period and is reflected in salary and employee benefits expense on the Company's consolidated statements of operations. Awards generally vest over two or three years and may not vest evenly over the vesting period. The effects of forfeitures are recognized as they occur.

The Company measures a liability award under a share-based payment arrangement based on the award’s fair value remeasured at each reporting date until the date of settlement. Compensation cost for each period until settlement is based on the change (or a portion of the change, depending on the percentage of the requisite service that has been rendered at the reporting date) in the fair value of the instrument for each reporting period.

    Stock options

Under the Company's 2018 Equity Incentive Plan, the Company determines the fair value of stock options using the Black-Scholes option pricing model, which requires the use of the following subjective assumptions:

Expected Volatility - Measure of the amount by which a stock price has fluctuated or is expected to fluctuate. Due to the relatively short amount of time that the Company's common stock (Nasdaq: PRTH) has traded on a public market, the Company uses volatility data for the common stocks of a peer group of comparable public companies. An increase in the expected volatility will increase the fair value of the stock option and related compensation expense.

Risk-free interest rate - U.S. Treasury rate for a stripped-principal treasury note as of the grant date having a term equal to the expected term of the stock option. An increase in the risk-free interest rate will increase the fair value of the stock option and related compensation expense.

Expected term - Period of time over which the stock options granted are expected to remain outstanding. As a newly-public company, the Company lacks sufficient exercise information for its stock option plan. Accordingly, the Company uses a method permitted by the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") whereby the expected term is estimated to be the mid-point between the vesting dates and the expiration dates of the stock option grants. An increase in the expected term will increase the fair value of the stock option and the related compensation expense.

Dividend yield - The Company used an amount of zero as the Company has paid no cash or stock dividends and does not anticipate doing so in the foreseeable future. An increase in the dividend yield will decrease the fair value of the stock option and the related compensation expenses.

    Time-Based Restricted Stock Awards
The fair value of time-based restricted stock awards is determined based on the quoted closing price of the Company's common stock on the date of grant and is recognized as compensation expense over the vesting term of the awards.

    
    Performance-Based Restricted Stock Awards

The Company accounts for its performance-based restricted equity awards based on the quoted closing price of the Company's common stock on the date of grant, adjusted for any market-based vesting criteria, and records shared-based compensation expense over the vesting term of the awards based on the probability that the performance criteria will be achieved. The performance goals may be work-related goals for the individual recipient and/or based on certain corporate performance goals. The Company reassesses the probability of vesting at each reporting period and prospectively adjusts share-based compensation expense based on its probability assessment. Additionally, if performance goals are set or reset on an annual basis, compensation cost is recognized in any reporting period only for performance-based RSU awards in which the performance goals have been established and communicated to the award recipient.

Repurchased Stock

Pursuant to the provisions of ASC 505-30, Treasury Stock, the Company has elected to apply the cost method when accounting for treasury stock resulting from the repurchase of its common stock. Under the cost method, the gross cost of the shares reacquired is charged to a contra equity account labeled Treasury Stock. The equity accounts that were originally credited for the original share issuance, common stock and additional paid-in capital, remain intact. See Note 14Stockholders' Deficit.

If the treasury shares are ever reissued in the future, proceeds in excess of repurchased cost will be credited to additional paid-in capital. Any deficiency will be charged to retained earnings (accumulated deficit), unless additional paid-in capital from previous treasury stock transactions exists, in which case the deficiency will be charged to that account, with any excess charged to retained earnings (accumulated deficit). If treasury stock is reissued in the future, a cost flow assumption (e.g., FIFO, LIFO, or specific identification) will be adopted to compute excesses and deficiencies upon subsequent share reissuance.

Earnings (Loss) Per Share
 
Basic earnings (loss) per share ("EPS") is computed by dividing net income (loss) available to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period, excluding the effects of any potentially dilutive securities. Diluted EPS gives effect to the potential dilution, if any, that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock, using the more dilutive of the two-class method or if-converted method. Diluted EPS excludes potential shares of common stock if their effect is anti-dilutive. If there is a net loss in any period, basic and diluted EPS are computed in the same manner.

The two-class method determines net income (loss) per common share for each class of common stock and participating securities according to dividends declared or accumulated and participation rights in undistributed earnings. The two-class method requires income available to common shareholders for the period to be allocated between common stock and participating securities based upon their respective rights to receive dividends as if all income for the period had been distributed. Prior to redemption in July 2018, the Goldman Sachs warrants were deemed to be participating securities because they had a contractual right to participate in non-forfeitable dividends on a one-for-one basis with the Company's common stock. Accordingly, the Company applied the two-class method for EPS when computing net income (loss) per common share. For periods beginning after September 30, 2018, EPS using the two-class method is no longer required due to the redemption of the Goldman Sachs warrant. See Note 10, Long-term Debt and Warrant Liability.

Income Taxes

Prior to July 25, 2018, Priority was a "pass-through" entity for income tax purposes and had no material income tax accounting reflected in its financial statements since taxable income and deductions were "passed through" to Priority's unconsolidated owners. As a limited liability company, Priority Holdings, LLC elected to be treated as a partnership for the purpose of filing income tax returns, and as such, the income and losses of Priority Holdings, LLC flowed through to its members. Accordingly,
no provisions for federal and most state income taxes was provided in the consolidated financial statements. However, periodic distributions were made to members to cover company-related tax liabilities.

MI Acquisitions was a taxable "C-Corp" for income tax purposes. As a result of Priority's acquisition by MI Acquisitions, the combined Company is now a taxable "C-Corp" that reports all of Priority's income and deductions for income tax purposes. Accordingly, subsequent to July 25, 2018, the consolidated financial statements of the Company reflect the accounting for income taxes in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board 's ("FASB") Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 740, Income Taxes ("ASC 740").

The Company accounts for income taxes under the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences between financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities and are measured using enacted tax rates and laws that are expected to be in effect when the differences are expected to be recovered or settled. Realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon future taxable income. A valuation allowance is recognized if it is more likely than not that some portion or all of a deferred tax asset will not be realized based on the weight of available evidence, including expected future earnings.
 
The Company recognizes an uncertain tax position in its financial statements when it concludes that a tax position is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination based solely on its technical merits. Only after a tax position passes the first step of recognition will measurement be required. Under the measurement step, the tax benefit is measured as the largest amount of benefit that is more likely than not to be realized upon effective settlement. This is determined on a cumulative probability basis. The full impact of any change in recognition or measurement is reflected in the period in which such change occurs.  The Company recognized interest and penalties associated with uncertain tax positions as a component of income tax expense.

Fair Value Measurements
 
The Company measures certain assets and liabilities at fair value. Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The Company uses a three-level fair value hierarchy to prioritize the inputs used to measure fair value and maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs. The three levels of inputs used to measure fair value are as follows:
 
Level 1 – Quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities as of the reporting date.
 
Level 2 – Observable market-based inputs or unobservable inputs that are corroborated by market data.
 
Level 3 – Unobservable inputs that are not corroborated by market data.
 
The fair values of the Company's merchant portfolios, assets and liabilities acquired in mergers and business combinations, and contingent consideration are primarily based on Level 3 inputs and are generally estimated based upon valuation techniques that include discounted cash flow analysis based on cash flow projections and, for years beyond the projection period, estimates based on assumed growth rates. Assumptions are also made regarding appropriate discount rates, perpetual growth rates, and capital expenditures, among others. In certain circumstances, the discounted cash flow analysis is corroborated by a market-based approach that utilizes comparable company public trading values and, where available, values observed in public market transactions.
 
The carrying values of accounts and notes receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses, long-term debt and cash, including settlement assets and the associated deposit liabilities approximate fair value due to either the short-term nature of such instruments or the fact that the interest rate of the debt is based upon current market rates.


New Accounting and Reporting Standards
Prior to July 25, 2018, Priority was defined as a non-public entity for purposes of applying transition guidance related to new or revised accounting standards under U.S. GAAP, and as such was typically required to adopt new or revised accounting standards subsequent to the required adoption dates that applied to public companies. MI Acquisitions was classified as an EGC. Subsequent to the Business Combination, the Company will cease to be an EGC no later than December 31, 2021. The Company will maintain the election available to an EGC to use any extended transition period applicable to non-public companies when complying with a new or revised accounting standards. Therefore, as long as the Company retains EGC status, the Company can continue to elect to adopt any new or revised accounting standards on the adoption date (including early adoption) required for a private company.


Accounting Standards Adopted in 2020

Disclosures for Fair Value Measurements (ASU 2018-13)

On January 1, 2020, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework — Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement ("ASU 2018-13"). ASU 2018-13 eliminated, added, and modified certain disclosure requirements for fair value measurements as part of the Financial Accounting Standards Board's ("FASB") disclosure framework project. Certain amendments must be applied prospectively while others are applied on a retrospective basis to all periods presented. As disclosure guidance, the adoption of this ASU had no effect on the Company's results of operations, financial position, or cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2020. Note 17, Fair Value, reflects the disclosure provisions of ASU 2018-13.


Share-Based Payments to Non-Employees (ASU 2018-07)

In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07, Share-based Payments to Non-Employees, to simplify the accounting for share-based payments to non-employees by aligning it with the accounting for share-based payments to employees, with certain exceptions. As an EGC, the ASU was effective for the Company's annual reporting period that began on January 1, 2020 and will be effective for interim periods beginning first quarter of 2021. The adoption of ASU 2018-07 had no material effect on the Company's results of operations, financial position, or cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2020.


Share-Based Payments to Customers (ASU 2019-08)

In November 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-08, Stock Compensation and Revenue from Contracts with Customers ("ASU 2019-08"). ASU 2019-08 applies to share-based payments granted in conjunction with the sale of goods and services to a customer that are not in exchange for a distinct good or service. Entities apply ASC 718 to measure and classify share-based sales incentives, and reflect the measurement of such incentives, as a reduction of the transaction price and also recognize such incentives in accordance with the guidance in ASC 606 on consideration payable to a customer. Entities that receive distinct goods or services from a customer account for the share-based payment in the same manner as they account for other purchases from suppliers (i.e., by applying the guidance in ASC 718). Any excess of the fair-value-based measure of the share-based payment award over the fair value of the distinct goods or services received is reflected as a reduction to the transaction price and recognized in accordance with the guidance in ASC 606 on consideration payable to a customer. ASU 2019-08 was effective for the Company at the same time it adopted ASU 2018-07, which was for its annual reporting period that began January 1, 2020 and will be effective for interim periods beginning first quarter 2021. The adoption of ASU 2018-07 had no material effect on the Company's results of operations, financial position, or cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2020.


Accounting Standards Adopted in 2019

Revenue Recognition (ASC 606) and Related Costs to Obtain or Fulfill a Contracts with Customers (ASC 340-40)

For the annual reporting period that began on January 1, 2019, the Company adopted ASU 2014-09 and the other clarifications and technical guidance issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") related to this new revenue standard that
have been collectively codified in ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, and the related ASC Subtopic 340-40, Other Assets and Deferred Costs - Contracts with Customers, (together, "ASC 606"). As an emerging growth company, the Company adopted ASC 606 under the extended transition provisions available to a non-public business entity. Accordingly, the Company was not required to report under the new standards until the Company’s annual reporting period for the year ended December 31, 2019.

In reporting the effects of the adoption of ASC 606 in its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures, the Company elected the full retrospective transition method. Under this method, all annual periods presented herein in these consolidated financial statements and related disclosures have been retrospectively recasted to reflect the provisions of ASC 606. In connection with the Company’s evaluation and adoption of ASC 606, the classification of certain transactions previously presented in revenue at their gross amounts were re-evaluated under the principal-agent guidance were retrospectively recasted within the Company’s statements of operations to a net presentation. There were no other adjustments as the result of the adoption of ASC 606 and, accordingly, no adjustment was required to the Company’s beginning retained earnings (deficit) at January 1, 2017 to reflect the cumulative effect of initially applying the new standards. The adoption of ASC 606 resulted only in offsetting reclassifications between revenues and costs of services within the same reporting periods. Accordingly, these reclassifications did not have any impact on income from operations, income (loss) before income taxes, net income (loss), assets, liabilities, stockholders’ deficit, or cash flows for any period.


Gains and Losses from Derecognition of Non-Financial Assets (ASU 2017-05)

Concurrent with the adoption of ASC 606, the Company was also required to adopt the provisions of ASU 2017-05, Other Income-Gains and Losses from the Derecognition of Non-financial Assets ("ASU 2017-05"). ASU 2017-05 clarifies that the guidance in ASC 610-20 on accounting for derecognition of a non-financial asset and an in-substance non-financial asset applies only when the asset or asset group does not meet the definition of a business or is not a non-for-profit entity. Non-financial assets include, but are not limited to, intangible assets, property and equipment. This ASU also clarifies that the provisions of ASC 606 apply if an entity transfers an asset to a customer. If an asset transfer in within the scope of ASU 2017-05, an entity measures its gain or loss on derecognition of each distinct asset as the difference between the amount of consideration received and the carrying amount of the distinct asset. The adoption of ASU 2017-05 had no impact on the Company's results of operations, financial position, or cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2019. However, the application of ASU 2017-05 to future transactions could be material.


Measurements of Certain Equity Investments (ASU 2016-01)
Under ASU 2016-01, Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities, entities have to measure equity investments (except those accounted for under the equity method, those that result in consolidation of the investee and certain other investments) at fair value and recognize any changes in fair value in net income. However, for equity investments that do not have readily determinable fair values and do not qualify for the existing practical expedient in ASC 820 to estimate fair value using the net asset value per share (or its equivalent) of the investment, the guidance provides a new measurement alternative. Entities may choose to measure those investments at cost, less any impairment, plus or minus changes resulting from observable price changes in orderly transactions for the identical or a similar investment of the same issuer. The Company early adopted the provisions of ASU 2016-01 on April 1, 2019 and applied them to an acquired warrant to purchase equity of another entity, the same entity that borrowed $3.5 million from the Company during 2019 under a $10.0 million loan and loan commitment agreement. The carrying value, at cost, and fair value of the warrant were not material. See Note 13Related Party Matters.
Statement of Cash Flows (ASU 2016-15)
 
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230). This ASU represents a consensus of the FASB's Emerging Issues Task Force on eight separate issues that each impact classifications on the statement of cash flows. In particular, issue number three addresses the classification of contingent consideration payments made after a business combination. Under ASU 2016-15, cash payments made soon after an acquisition's consummation date (i.e., approximately three months or less) will be classified as cash outflows from investing activities. Payments made thereafter will be classified as cash outflows from financing activities up to the amount of the original contingent consideration liability. Payments made in excess of the amount of the original contingent consideration liability will be classified as cash outflows from operating activities. As an EGC, this ASU was effective for the Company's annual reporting period beginning in 2019 and was effective for interim periods beginning in 2020. The Company made no payments in 2020 or 2019 for contingent consideration related to business combinations.


Income Taxes for Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory (ASU 2016-16)

In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-16, Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Inventory ("ASU 2016-16"). ASU 2016-16 removes the prohibition in ASC 740 against the immediate recognition of the current and deferred income tax effects of intra-entity transfers of assets other than inventory. The ASU is intended to reduce the complexity of U.S. GAAP and diversity in practice related to the tax consequences of certain types of intra-entity asset transfers, particularly those involving intellectual property. ASU 2016-16 was effective for the Company's annual reporting period ended December 31, 2019 and interim periods beginning in 2020. The adoption of ASU 2016-16 did not have a material effect on the Company's results of operations, financial position, or cash flows. However, any future inter-entity transfers of assets within scope of this ASU may be affected.


Accounting Standards Adopted in 2018

Modifications to Share-Based Compensation Awards (ASU 2017-09)

As of January 1, 2018, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2017-09, Compensation-Stock Compensation Topic 718 - Scope of Modification Accounting ("ASU 2017-09"). ASU 2017-09 clarifies when changes to the terms and conditions of share-based payment awards must be accounted for as modifications. Entities apply the modification accounting guidance if the value, vesting conditions, or classification of an award changes. The Company has not modified any share-based payment awards since the adoption of ASU 2017-09, therefore this new ASU has had no impact on the Company's financial position, operations, or cash flows. Should the Company modify share-based payment awards in the future, it will apply the provisions of ASU 2017-09.

Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Income Taxes (ASU 2015-17)

In connection with the Business Combination and Recapitalization, the Company prospectively adopted the provisions of ASU No. 2015-17, Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes ("ASU 2015-17"), during the third quarter of 2018. ASU 2015-17 simplifies the balance sheet presentation of deferred income taxes by reporting the net amount of deferred tax assets and liabilities for each tax-paying jurisdiction as non-current on the balance sheet. Prior guidance required the deferred taxes for each tax-paying jurisdiction to be presented as a net current asset or liability and net non-current asset or liability.

Definition of a Business (ASU 2017-01)

On October 1, 2018, the Company prospectively adopted the provisions of ASU No. 2017-01, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business ("ASU 2017-01"). ASU 2017-01 assists entities in determining if acquired assets constitute the acquisition of a business or the acquisition of assets for accounting and reporting purposes. The guidance requires an entity to evaluate if substantially all of the fair value of the gross assets acquired is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or a group of similar identifiable assets; if so, the set of transferred assets and activities is not a business. In practice prior to ASU 2017-01, if revenues were generated immediately before and after a transaction, the acquisition was typically considered a
business. The Company's December 2018 acquisition of certain assets of Direct Connect Merchant Services, LLC was not deemed to be the acquisition of a business under ASU 2017-01 because substantially all of the fair value was concentrated in a single identifiable group of similar identifiable assets.

Accounting for Share-Based Payments to Employees (ASU 2016-09)

For its annual reporting period beginning January 1, 2018, the Company adopted the provisions of ASU 2016-09, Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting ("ASU 2016-09"), which amends ASC Topic 718, Compensation–Stock Compensation. This adoption had the following effects:

Consolidated Statement of Operations - ASU 2016-09 imposes a new requirement to record all of the excess income tax benefits and deficiencies (that result from an increase or decrease in the value of an award from grant date to settlement date) related to share-based payments at settlement through the statement of operations instead of the former requirement to record income tax benefits in excess of compensation cost ("windfalls") in equity, and income tax deficiencies ("shortfalls") in equity to the extent of previous windfalls, and then to operations. This change is required to be applied prospectively upon adoption of ASU 2016-09 to all excess income tax benefits and deficiencies resulting from settlements of share-based payments after the date of adoption. This particular provision of ASU 2016-09 had no material effect on the Company's financial position, operations, or cash flows.

Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows - ASU 2016-09 requires that all income tax-related cash flows resulting from share-based payments, such as excess income tax benefits, are to be reported as operating activities on the statement of cash flows, a change from the prior requirement to present windfall income tax benefits as an inflow from financing activities and an offsetting outflow from operating activities. This particular provision of ASU 2016-09 had no material effect on the Company's financial position, operations, or cash flows.

Additionally, ASU 2016-09 clarifies that:

All cash payments made to taxing authorities on an employee's behalf for withheld shares at settlement are presented as financing activities on the statement of cash flows. This change must be applied retrospectively. This particular provision of ASU 2016-09 had no material effect on the Company's financial position, operations, or cash flows.

Entities are permitted to make an accounting policy election for the impact of forfeitures on the recognition of expense for share-based payment awards. Forfeitures can be estimated or recognized when they occur. Estimates of forfeitures will still be required in certain circumstances, such as at the time of modification of an award or issuance of a replacement award in a business combination. If elected, the change to recognize forfeitures when they occur needs to be adopted using a modified retrospective approach, with a cumulative effect adjustment recorded to opening retained earnings. The Company made a policy election to recognize the impact of forfeitures when they occur. This policy election primarily impacted the Company's new equity compensation plans originating in 2018 (see Note 15, Share-Based Compensation), thus not requiring a cumulative effect adjustment to opening retained earnings for these new plans. For the Company's previously existing equity compensation plan (the Management Incentive Plan), see Note 15, Share-Based Compensation. The amount of the cumulative effect upon adoption of ASU 2016-09 was not material and therefore has not been reflected in opening retained earnings on the Company's consolidated balance sheets or consolidated statements of changes in stockholders' deficit.


Recently Issued Accounting Standards Pending Adoption

The following standards are pending adoption and will likely apply to the Company in future periods based on the Company's current business activities.

Implementation Costs Incurred in Cloud Computing Arrangements (ASU 2018-15)

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, Implementation Costs Incurred in Cloud Computing Arrangements ("ASU 2018-15"), which aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a
service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software (and hosting arrangements that include an internal-use software license). As an EGC, this ASU will be effective for the Company's annual reporting period beginning January 1, 2021, and will be effective for interim periods beginning in 2022. The amendments are applied either retrospectively or prospectively to all implementation costs incurred after the date of adoption, and the Company has not yet made a determination to use the retrospective or prospective adoption method. Based on current operations of the Company, the adoption of ASU 2018-15 is not expected to have a material effect on the Company's results of operations, financial position, or cash flows.

Reference Rate Reform (ASU 2020-04)

On March 12, 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848), Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting. This ASU provides temporary optional expedients and exceptions to the GAAP guidance on contract modifications and hedge accounting to ease the financial reporting burdens of the expected market transition from the London Interbank Offered Rate ("LIBOR") and other interbank offered rates to alternative reference rates, such as the Secured Overnight Financial Rate. Entities can elect not to apply certain modification accounting requirements to contracts affected by what the guidance calls reference rate reform, if certain criteria are met. An entity that makes this election would not have to remeasure the contact at the modification date or reassess a previous accounting determination. ASU 2021-01 ASU 2020-04 can be adopted at any time before December 31, 2022. The provisions of ASU 2020-04 may impact the Company if future debt modifications or refinancings utilize one or more of the reference rates covered by the provisions of this ASU.


Leases (ASC 842)

In February 2016, the FASB issued new lease accounting guidance in ASU No. 2016-02, Leases-Topic 842, which has been codified in ASC 842, Leases. Under this new guidance, lessees will be required to recognize for all leases (with the exception of short-term leases): 1) a lease liability equal to the lessee's obligation to make lease payments arising from a lease, measured on a discounted basis and 2) a right-of-use asset which will represent the lessee's right to use, or control the use of, a specified asset for the lease term. As an EGC, this standard is effective for the Company's annual and interim reporting periods beginning 2022. The adoption of ASC 842 will require the Company to recognize non-current assets and liabilities for right-of-use assets and operating lease liabilities on its consolidated balance sheet, but it is not expected to have a material effect on the Company's results of operations or cash flows. ASC 842 will also require additional footnote disclosures to the Company's consolidated financial statements.


Credit Losses (ASU 2016-13 and ASU 2018-19)

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. This new guidance will change how entities account for credit impairment for trade and other receivables, as well as for certain financial assets and other instruments. ASU 2016-13 will replace the current "incurred loss" model with an "expected loss" model. Under the "incurred loss" model, a loss (or allowance) is recognized only when an event has occurred (such as a payment delinquency) that causes the entity to believe that a loss is probable (i.e., that it has been "incurred"). Under the "expected loss" model, a loss (or allowance) is recognized upon initial recognition of the asset that reflects all future events that leads to a loss being realized, regardless of whether it is probable that the future event will occur. The "incurred loss" model considers past events and current conditions, while the "expected loss" model includes expectations for the future which have yet to occur. The standard will require entities to record a cumulative-effect adjustment to the balance sheet as of the beginning of the first reporting period in which the guidance is effective. The Company is currently evaluating the potential impact that ASU 2016-13 may have on the timing of recognizing future provisions for expected losses on the Company's accounts receivable and notes receivable. Since the Company was a smaller reporting company ("SRC") on November 15, 2019, the Company must adopt this new standard no later than the beginning of 2023 for annual and interim reporting periods.


Goodwill Impairment Testing (ASU 2017-04)
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. ASU 2017-04 will eliminate the requirement to calculate the implied fair value of goodwill (i.e., step 2 of the current goodwill impairment test) to measure a goodwill impairment charge. Instead, entities will record an impairment charge based on the excess of a reporting unit's carrying amount over its fair value (i.e., measure the charge based on the current step 1). Any impairment charge will be limited to the amount of goodwill allocated to an impacted reporting unit. ASU 2017-04 will not change the current guidance for completing Step 1 of the goodwill impairment test, and an entity will still be able to perform the current optional qualitative goodwill impairment assessment before determining whether to proceed to Step 1. Upon adoption, the ASU will be applied prospectively. Since the Company was a SRC on November 15, 2019, the Company must adopt this new standard no later than the beginning of 2023 for annual and interim reporting periods. The impact that ASU 2017-04 may have on the Company's financial condition or results of operations will depend on the circumstances of any goodwill impairment event that may occur after adoption.


Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (ASU 2019-12)

In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes ("ASU 2019-12"). ASU 2019-12 will affect several topics of income tax accounting, including: tax-basis step-up in goodwill obtained in a transaction that is not a business combination; intra-period tax allocation; ownership changes in investments when an equity method investment becomes a subsidiary of an entity; interim-period accounting for enacted changes in tax law; and year-to-date loss limitation in interim-period tax accounting. This ASU is effective for the Company on January 1, 2022. We are evaluating the effect of ASU 2019-12 on our consolidated financial statements.


Concentration of Risk

A substantial portion of the Company's revenues and receivables are attributable to merchants. For the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, no one merchant customer accounted for 10% or more of the Company's consolidated revenues. Most of the Company's merchant customers were referred to the Company by an ISO or other referral partners. If the Company's agreement with an ISO allows the ISO to have merchant portability rights, the ISO can move the underlying merchant relationships to another merchant acquirer upon notice to the Company and completion of a "wind down" period. For the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, merchants referred by one ISO organization with merchant portability rights generated revenue within the Company's Consumer Payments reportable segment that represented approximately 21%, 18%, and 14%, respectively, of the Company's consolidated revenues.

A majority of the Company's cash and restricted cash is held in certain financial institutions, substantially all of which is in excess of federal deposit insurance corporation limits. The Company does not believe it is exposed to any significant credit risk from these transactions.

Reclassifications

Certain prior year amounts in these consolidated financial statements have been reclassified to conform to the current year presentation, with no net effect on the Company's income from operations, income (loss) before income tax expense (benefit), net income (loss), stockholders' deficit, or cash flows from operations, investing, or financing activities.